The dynamics of systems of secondary cities in Africa: urbanisation, migration and development

The populations of African cities are expected to grow by more than 900 million by 2050. Many of these people will live in secondary cities. These cities are a sub‑set of cities within national systems of cities. Secondary cities play a critical intermediary role in the operation and development of local and regional economies of national systems of cities and regions. They are a vital part of the fabric of the production, distribution, and logistics systems of national economies. Unfortunately, they have become a neglected area of policy and economic development in the post‑independence era in Africa.