Battery electric tractor-trailers in the European Union: a vehicle technology analysis

Long-haul trucks are responsible for the bulk of road freight CO2 emissions in Europe. However, at the time the heavy-duty vehicle CO2 standards were finalized in the European Union in 2019, there was little information available on zero-emission technologies. The 2022 review of the CO2 standards presents a latent opportunity to include zero-emissions HDV in the techno economic assessment underlying the stringency of the CO2 standards. This study presents a vehicle technology analysis for battery electric long-haul tractor-trailers, focusing on the quantification of the energy efficiency and driving range under typical operating conditions.