Effective food systems innovations: An inventory of evidence from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Viet Nam, and other low-and middle-income countries

To address malnutrition in low- and middle income countries (LMICs), more evidence is needed about the potential of food system innovations to help guide the transformation towards healthier, more sustainable, and equitable food systems. This paper reviews the literature on food system innovations in the food environment and addressing consumer behavior on diet and nutrition-related outcomes in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Viet Nam, and other LMICs, then highlights promising innovations and demonstrates gaps in the literature. In the food environment, promising innovations include nutrition-relevant multi-sectoral national policy backed by effective implementation; institutional purchasing offering healthy meals in school or factory environments; compulsory nutrition labelling; and fortified foods, if these can be durably offered or viably commercialised.