Are India's urban poor using clean cooking fuels? insights from urban slum households across six states

This brief examines access to clean cooking energy, specifically across urban slum households in six Indian states - Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh. Urban slums suffer from the double burden of pollution. They are exposed to the high ambient particulate matter pollution of cities and the household air pollution (HAP) from unclean cooking fuels. The analysis focuses on cooking fuel use patterns of households, the extent of LPG and solid fuels use, fuel stacking behaviour, and the primary cook’s perception of various cooking fuels and their impact on health. The survey covered 656 households across 83 urban slums (notified and non-notified) spread across 58 districts. The study, however, does not provide a state-level analysis because of the smaller sample size for urban slums in states such as Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.