International case studies on public communication and consultation strategies for low emission zones and congestion charging schemes

The working paper will be part of the “Low Emission Zone/Congestion Charge (LEZ/CC) Public Communication Strategies” series of papers to offer a comprehensive package of public communication strategies to safeguard successful implementation. It is the first paper in the series, and studies 10 cases from Europe, Asia, and the United States to highlight the variety of social, political, and environmental contexts within which CC and LEZ schemes were planned and implemented. From the examples studied, two types of consultation process were identified; scientific/professional and consultative/political. All of the international case studies highlight how public communication is woven into the policy development process, which itself may be split into two stages: ‘internal’ and ‘external’ for a LEZ or CC within an integrated transportation package.