Adaptation decision making frameworks and tools: multi-criteria decision making tools for prioritizing adaptation actions at community level

There is a lack of holistic frameworks to help climate change adaptation practitioners identify and implement CCA (climate change adaptation) actions. Keeping this in view, several frameworks for CCA decision making have evolved in recent years. Though these frameworks are still at nascent stages and are yet to be field tested, studies of these frameworks indicate that they are a step in right direction and provide ample insights into principles and practices of CCA decision making. This paper identifies various issues to be considered in measuring progress in climate change adaptation metrics, how various monitoring and evaluation (M&E) frameworks have approached the problem of measuring the effectiveness of CCA actions, discusses various prominent M&E frameworks, and provides guidelines and possible ways forward.