Predicting human-carnivore conflict: a spatial model derived from 25 years of data on wolf predation on livestock

Many carnivore populations escaped extinction during the twentieth century as a result of legal protections, habitat restoration, and changes in public attitudes. However, encounters between carnivores, livestock, and humans are increasing in some areas, raising concerns about the costs of carnivore conservation. The authors present a method to predict sites of human-carnivore conflicts regionally, using as an example the mixed forest-agriculture landscapes ofWisconsin and Minnesota (U.S.A.).