Costs and CO2 emissions reduction benefits of potential phase 3 fuel consumption standards for India’s passenger vehicles

India’s transportation sector is expected to expand rapidly due to rising incomes and increasing urbanization, and the government is keen to electrify transportation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. India has set a national goal of 30% battery electric vehicle (BEV) sales by 2030 and fleet-average carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards are effective in supporting the adoption of BEVs in passenger car fleets. This study evaluates how prospective phase 3 fuel consumption standards for the passenger car segment in India could help meet the 30% target. Evaluated CO2- reducing internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) technologies and compared the direct manufacturing costs (DMC) of BEVs with the DMCs of improved ICEVs for a variety of vehicle classes. The results can guide regulators to propose phase 3 fuel consumption standards for passenger cars.