Strategies for deploying zero-emission bus fleets: route-level energy consumption and driving range analysis

This is the second paper in a series describing the development of tools and methods to perform route-level analysis of electric bus operations. The broad goal is to support transitions to zero-emission bus fleets and identify the least-cost approaches for widespread procurement and deployment of these technologies. This is important because there are unique operational considerations with respect to charging strategies and the driving range of battery electric buses that are not typically associated with conventionally powered buses.