Financial and Economic Impacts of the Swachh Bharat Mission in India

The study aims to measure the household and community costs and benefits of improved sanitation and hygiene implemented under the Swachh Bharat Mission, and to compare these in cost-benefit analysis. Costs include both financial and non-financial (in-kind) contributions of different parties. Costs and benefits are presented under four perspectives: 1. Household financial perspective – involving only household medical spending. 2. Household financial perspective plus impacts on time use and actual or potential productivity. 3. Household economic perspective, taking into account 2. above plus the value of lives saved. 4. Societal perspective, taking into account 3. above plus non-household spending on the intervention (e.g. government, civil society organizations and other stakeholders). These different perspectives allow conclusions according to the directness of impact of the intervention on households, each with different policy conclusions.

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