Energy subsidies: Evolution in the global energy transformation to 2050

Despite the prevalence of subsidies throughout the energy system, the sector lacks any systematically applied, standardised definition of what subsidies are. This Staff Technical Paper published by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) contributes to ongoing research and debate on how energy sector subsidies are calculated and the impact of different methodologies and definitions. It highlights the difficulty of determining true subsidy levels, considers the various sources for such analysis and outlines key results.