From the mid-2000s, a commodity boom underpinned a wave of land use investments in low- and middle-income countries. While agribusiness, mining and petroleum concessions often involve promises of jobs and public revenues, they have also prompted concerns about land dispossession, exclusionary investment models and infringements of the rights of vulnerable groups. One of the major challenges is in empowering rural people to make informed choices, exercise their rights and have their voices heard. A solid understanding of evolving investment trends is essential for designing effective initiatives. This report discusses evolving patterns in land use investments, developments in investment frameworks, and implications for legal empowerment approaches.