The Department of Environment has finalised the draft of National Pollution Control Strategy and Action Plan. Nepal’s pollution levels demonstrate a significant need for further development of a well established and effectively operating pollution control monitoring system. In addition, there should be mass public awareness and education programmes, as well as regular monitoring of pollution’s impact on human health and the environment. Meeting these challenges is a necessary precondition for development in any country. It has been clearly shown through the history of highly industrialised countries that the successful development of national economies in the long run depends on the state of the environment. Against this background, tackling the environmental problems at hand is a necessary prerequisite for positive development in Nepal. In this report, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the existing pollution control laws have been analysed. During this analysis, the constitutional provisions, as well as legislative instruments including standards and policy documents, have been reviewed considering the requirements of formulation of new National Pollution Control Strategy and Action Plan (NPCSAP).