This plan was prepared in line with the broad set of guidelines set forth by UNFCCC for development of national adaptation plans (NAPs) (UNCCS 2012). The NAP process of UNFCCC is a generalized process consisted of four stages that could be customized according to specific situations in respective countries. According to UNFCC guidelines, having many groundwork requirements fulfilled, Sri Lanka can be considered as a country that has already entered the NAP process and reached some important milestones. Hence, Sri Lanka started from the second stage―i.e. making preparatory elements—which is the real planning stage of NAP process. Other than setting the broad framework, UNFCCC remain open for country-driven customized methodologies of planning. Accordingly, a country-specific NAP methodology was developed for Sri Lanka based on broad UNFCCC guidelines. The NAP covers adaptation needs at two levels, namely; adaptation needs of key vulnerable sectors and cross-cutting national needs of adaptation. Nine vulnerable sectors were identified in the consultation process and they include; food security, water, coastal sector, health, human settlements, bio-diversity, tourism and recreation, export development and industry- energy-transportation.