Marine biofouling and invasive species: guidelines for prevention and management

An invasive alien species is one which has been introduced by human activity to a new geographic area or ecosystem outside of its natural distribution range, and which has then established and spread threatening ecosystems, habitats and/or other species, and potentially causing economic and/or environmental damage, or harm to human health. It is important to note, however, that native species may also become invasive, usually under altered environmental conditions. Invasive Alien Species in the marine environment are called by a variety of names including Introduced Marine Pests (IMPs) (Australia and New Zealand), Aquatic Nuisance Species (ANS) (United States), and Harmful Aquatic Organisms (IMO Ballast Water Convention).