The Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Himalaya is seismically active in segments. In recent times, strain release within these active segments produce five spatial clusters (A to E; Figure 1). The seismicity
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Fundamental to the onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon is the land-sea thermal gradient from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HTP). The timing of the onset is strongly controlled by the meridional tropospheric temperature gradient due to the rapid pre-monsoon heating of the HTP compared to the relatively cooler Indian Ocean.