This bottom-up modeling study, supported by new population census 2011 data, simulates ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure on local to regional scales. It quantifies, present-day premature
Geophysical Research Letters
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As the water vapor content in the atmosphere scales with temperature, a warmer world is expected to feature an intensification of the hydrological cycle. Work to date has mainly focused on mean precipitation
Transport of short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P) to the Himalayas during the South Asian summer monsoon onset
Over the course of six years (2006–2011), equivalent black carbon (eqBC), coarse aerosol mass (PM 1–10), and surface ozone (O 3), observed during the monsoon onset period at the Nepal Climate Observatory–Pyramid
Fundamental to the onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon is the land-sea thermal gradient from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HTP). The timing of the onset is strongly controlled by the meridional tropospheric temperature gradient due to the rapid pre-monsoon heating of the HTP compared to the relatively cooler Indian Ocean.