Introduction of a leguminous shrub to a rubber plantation changed the soil carbon and nitrogen fractions and ameliorated soil environments

The conversion of monoculture rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations into rubber-based agroforestry systems has become a common trend in forestry management in the past few decades. Rubber–Flemingia macrophylla (a leguminous shrub) systems are popular in southwestern China’s Xishuangbanna region. The biogeochemical cycles of soil carbon and nitrogen in forests are mainly affected by their fractions. This study investigated the effect of introducing Flemingia macrophylla to rubber plantations of different ages on soil carbon and nitrogen fractions.

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