The majority of the world’s 800 million food-insecure people live in regions where water and food security are intimately linked. Tackling the underlying causes of food insecurity therefore means addressing a set of livelihood vulnerabilities, including access to water for domestic and productive uses. The World Food Programme (WFP) has commissioned this report with a view to deepening its understanding of the underlying issues and informing programme interventions. The findings presented are based on case studies carried out in 16 project sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Kenya. The aim was to capture a range of interventions supported by WFP, and a variety of partnerships and implementation modalities at local and national levels.