This brief makes the case for ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) by presenting how it can generate multiple environmental, social and economic benefits. Research shows that benefiting from a wide range of ecosystem services is closely correlated with communities’ degree of resilience to challenges. It presents case studies from Peru, Nepal and Uganda. This guidance document is part of a series of learning briefs, which draw experiences and lessons learned from working on ecosystem-based adaptation within the global EbA in Mountain Ecosystems Programme from 2011 to 2015. The briefs are designed for practitioners, including local government representatives, civil society organizations and other actors working on climate change issues. They will also be useful for policy makers and donors engaged in planning and allocation of resources for adaptation action.