Electronic road pricing: experience and lessons from Singapore
Singapore is the first city in the world to implement electronic road pricing (ERP) in September 1998. The ERP or congestion pricing system was successful for one important reason - the city operates a widely accessible public transport system (road and rail) which can support the shift to car-free transport. Given the current traffic demand trends, the ERP is a measure that many Asian cities will be forced to consider as traffic conditions become more acute. This paper presents an overview of how ERP was implemented in, experiences and lessons from, Singapore.